We introduce the FullMonte tetrahedral 3-D Monte Carlo (MC) software package for simulation, visualization, and analysis of light propagation in heterogeneous turbid media including tissue. It provides the highest computational performance and richest set of input, output, and analysis facilities of any open-source tetrahedral-mesh MC light simulator. It also provides a robust framework for statistical verification. A scripting interface makes set-up of simulation runs simple, including parameter sweeps, while simultaneously providing customization options. Data formats shared with class-leading visualization tools, VTK and Paraview, facilitate interactive generation of publication-quality fluence and irradiance maps. The simulator can read and write file formats supported by other similar simulators, such as TIM-OS, MMC, COMSOL (finite-element simulations), and MCML to support comparison. Where simulator features permit, FullMonte can take a single test case, run it in multiple software packages, and load the results together for comparison. Example meshes, optical properties, set-up scripts, and output files are provided for user convenience. We demonstrate its use in several test cases, including photodynamic therapy of the brain, bioluminescence imaging (BLI) in a mouse phantom, and a comparison against MCML for layered geometries. Application domains that can benefit from use of FullMonte include photodynamic, photothermal, and photobiomodulation therapies, BLI, diffuse optical tomography, MC software development, and biophotonics education. Since MC results may be used for preclinical or even clinical experiments, a robust and rigorous verification process is essential. Being a stochastic numerical method, MC simulation has unique challenges associated with verification of output results since observed differences may be due simply to output variance or actual differences in expected output. We describe and have implemented a rigorous and statistically justified framework for comparing between simulators of the same class and for performing regression testing.
Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) has been widely used in preclinical tumor imaging, which enables three-dimensional imaging of the distribution of fluorescent probes in small animal bodies via image reconstruction method. However, the reconstruction results are usually unsatisfactory in the term of robustness and efficiency because of the ill-posed and ill-conditioned of FMT problem. In this study, an FMT reconstruction method based on primal accelerated proximal gradient (PAPG) descent and L1-norm regularized projection (L1RP) is proposed. The proposed method utilizes the current and previous iterations to obtain a search point at each iteration. To achieve fast convergence, the PAPG method is applied to efficiently solve the search point, and then L1RP is performed to obtain the robust and accurate reconstruction. To verify the performance of the proposed method, simulation experiments are conducted. The comparative results revealed that it held advantages of robustness, accuracy, and efficiency in FMT reconstructions. Furthermore, a phantom experiment and an in vivo mouse experiment were also performed, which proved the potential and feasibility of the proposed method for practical applications.
Diagnostic accuracy of needle-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for prostate cancer detection by visual and quantitative analysis is defined. 106 three-dimensional (3-D)-OCT data sets were acquired in 20 prostates after radical prostatectomy and precisely matched with pathology. OCT images were grouped per histological category. Two reviewers performed blind assessments of the OCT images. Sensitivity and specificity for malignancy detection were calculated. Quantitative analyses by automated optical attenuation coefficient calculation were performed. OCT can reliably differentiate between fat, cystic, and regular atrophy and benign glands. The overall sensitivity and specificity for malignancy detection was 79% and 88% for reviewer 1 and 88% and 81% for reviewer 2. Quantitative analysis for differentiation between stroma and malignancy showed a significant difference (4.6 mm − 1 versus 5.0 mm − 1 Mann–Whitney U-test p < 0.0001). A Kruskal–Wallis test showed a significant difference in median attenuation coefficient between stroma, inflammation, Gleason 3, and Gleason 4 (4.6, 4.1, 5.9, and 5.0 mm − 1, respectively). However, attenuation coefficient varied per patient and a related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed no significant difference per patient (p = 0.17). This study confirmed the one to one correlation of histopathology and OCT. Precise matching showed that most histological tissues categories in the prostate could be distinguished by their unique pattern in OCT images. In addition, the optical attenuation coefficient can play a role in the differentiation between stroma and malignancy; however, a per patient analysis of the optical attenuation coefficient did not show a significant difference.