We present an overview of our research on the relation between line edge roughness (LER) and optical critical dimension metrology (OCD). Referring to a known fact that LER does have an impact on OCD, we discuss a novel approach that allows for its better understanding. Namely, we show that, in the presence of LER, one can observe a characteristic scatterometry-measured CD offset, which we call effective–CD. The fact that the effective–CD is characteristic renders it to be a good means of accessing the information about LER present on the CD. To assure the completeness of this overview, we begin by reviewing some previously published results, which have drawn our attention and first led us to observing the characteristic influence of LER on a CD measurement. Next, we extend our model-based simulations to confirm the presence of the effective–CD for complex-roughness models, and finally, we demonstrate an experimental verification of our effective–CD hypothesis. We are convinced that our approach will help to better understand the impact of LER on a CD measurement and will be considered a useful contribution to the development of measurement methods for challenging scenarios, in which realistic CD is affected by the presence of LER.